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Em 9: Properties of magnets are they attract iron and materials that contain iron. They attract or repel other magnets. One part of a magnet will always point towards north if allowed to swing freely. Unlike poles atract and like poles repel. This is the reason a lot of magnets stick to the refrigerator and other common materials containing iron. However, what this also says is that if a magnet gets close to an electronic device such as a laptop, the inside contains a lot of metal and iron which will attract the magnet which can be dangerous for the laptop to function normally. When a magnet somehow becomes two magnets because it got broken into two pieces, they will still have a north pole and a south pole which will attract and repel depending on which side it's facing.
Em 10: The magnetic domains in a non-magnetic material in a way that the magnetic fields are pointing in random directions. In a magnetic material most or all of the domains are pointing in the same direction. The reason when a magnet gets heated or struck hard and it loses its magnetic property is because of this. The magnet itself becomes unmagnetized and the domains face in random directions causing it to not function as it's suppose to. Furthermore it is possible to magnetize a material that is originally unmagnetized. The method is simple and all it takes is a magnet to rub the unmagnetized material until it becomes magnetized. This works for a little bit but will eventually start pointing in random directions again and stop working.
Em 11: The relationship between electricity and magnetism is called electromagnetism because an electric current produces a magnetic field. Suppose there is a magnet on a table, and as mentioned in one of the properties of a magnet if it is allowed to swing freely it will always point to the north. However when a current is present the compass needle will allign with the magnetic field produced by the current in the wire. Another example is when iron fillings are surrounded by a wire it will show no sign of pattern until there is a current running through it, and then it will finally form a pattern and map out the magnetic field produced by the current in the wire.
Em 12: The DC current only has charges that flow in one direction. It is produced when the current is induced from magnetic field changes or from an enegy source like a battery. This induced current will go towards the direction in which the wire or magnet moves which can be one direction only or alternate directions. Charges flow from one end of the battery to the other end. AC current is when the magnetic field is moved up and down repeatedly causing the current to reverse direction repeatedly. This is why the charges go back and forth as well. The advantage is that the voltage could be easily raised or decreased for use over great distances or reduced for safer usage.
Em 13: The Earth behaves like a magnet because it has a magnetic field and two magnetic poles. The molten core of the Earth is made of iron and whenever it rotates, it generates an electric current that sets up a magnetic field which is lined up with the planet's axis of rotation which is why the Earth is like a giant magnet. With this in mind, the Earth's geographic poles and the magnetic poles are not in the same location. Thus, when using a compass magnetic declination, the angle between the geographic pole and the magnetic pole depends on the location of the Earth which constantly moves. Furthermore Earth can make ferromagnetic materials by lining up the domain of the material taking years and years for it to change. There is also a factor of the rocks leaving a permanent record through the molten material creating the rock then the iron lining up in the direction of Earth's magnetic field. This allows scienctists to determine the age of the rock. The magnetic field is important to living things because it reflects solar radiation and cosmic rays, furthermore it is what determines the polar caps, climate, and other factors such as electromagnetic waves. Suppose the magnetic fields are suddenly gone, then the result of it would be that the solar wind will take away the gases that make up the atmosphere which will result us in difficulty in breathing or worst case scenario death.
EM 14: Grounding wires are important because to avoid electrical shock and other electrical danger is to provide another path for the current. The grounding wires allow the charges to flow directly from the circuit into the Earth. One way to make this happen is by using the third pong, a device that connects any metal piece to the ground wire. When the cycle keeps on cotinuoung and a short circuit occurs the Electric charges will flow into Earth. A fuse is a device with strips of metal that melts when too much current is applied. When there is too much current the strip will low and stops the current because the circuit is broken. However, when one dies out it has to be replaced. Curcuit breaker is however reusable and it is a switch that turns off the circuit when the current is too high.
Em 15: Electromagnets are solenoids with a ferromagnetic core. The magnetic field comes from the current and the magnetized core. It can be turned on and off just like solenoids. It can be used in various situations such as recording information onto audiotapes, videotapes, computer ard drives, and credit cards. It is often used to lift heavy objects because it can be turned on to lift the object up and turned off to drop it.
Em 16: A simple motor works is the transformation of electrical energy to mechanical energy. Keeping in mind the direction the loop moves in a magnet field depends on the current, when the current is reversed when armature gets to a vertical position. The current in the armature has a magnetic field and it tries to align itself with the permanent magnets beside it. As the armature tries to do that, it turns with the commutator allowing a continuous spin to occur. The brushes is attached to the commutator recieving electrons from the energy source then the armature will move up and down alighing itself with the magnet around. Furthermore the commutator will rotate with the armature causing the continuous spin.
Em 17: An electric generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. A generator uses motion in a magnetic field to produce an electric current. The AC current works as the crank is turned, the armture rotates in the magnetic field. As one side moves up the other moves down, and this motion induces a current in the wire. The current is in the opposite directions on the two sides of the armature. The armature turns half way, it reverses direction in the magnetic field. The current in the wire changes direction too, resulting in an alternating current induced. Slip rings turn with the armature as well. It turns, make contact with the brushes and connect the circuit together being an energy source. A DC generator is similar but it contains a commutator instead of slip rings. Supplying electrical energy to the motor it will spin, vice versa spinning the motor will produce electrical energy. Transformers is a device with two seperatev coils of insulated wire wrapped around an iron core. The current in the primary coil of the transformer produces a magnetic field. It will chage as the current alternates. The moving magnetic field induces a current in the secondary coil. To have the transformer work, it is necessary that the primary coil is changing.
Em 18 Transformers are devices that allow an increase or a decrease in the voltage. It is extremely important because by increasing the voltage, it allows the current to travel further distances making reaching houses and other destinatons possible and efficient. By lowering the voltage it allows for safer usage althought it is limited in distance. Transmiting current over long distances require about 11,000 to 765,000 volts but will require voltage to be decreased in order for usage atj home. Fluorescent lights, televsions, and X-ray machines require higher voltage, perhaps around 120 volts. Doorbells, electronic games, and portable CD players, require lower voltages require around 6 to 12 volts.
Em 19: Power production and distribution can be done in several ways. Wind energy is the transformation of mechanical energy (the wind giving the push) into electrical energy. Geothermal energy is from thermal (particles moving from heat of Earth) to mechanical and finally into electrical. Solar energy is from electromagnetic energy into electrical energy. Biomass chemical (Burning organic waste to heat and produces energy) into thermal to mechanical finally into electrical energy. Fossil fuels results in electrical from chemical (burning). Next up hydroelectric energy from hydro (water) power into mechanical spinning the turbine ending up electrical. Finally nuclear energy thermal (steam) into mechanical and ending up electrical.
Em 20: Both 110V and 220V are different and is better than the other in certain ways. 110V is safer and most appliances are designed to accept 110V and would explode if connected to a 220V but it is less efficient because the travel time takes longer and it has a weaker push compared to the 220V outlet. 220V is a bit more dangerous but is more efficient because the push is stronger and the electricity travels faster. Furthermore there is always an option of using a step-down transformer to decrease the voltage to 110V for appliances that only work with 110V outlets. Countries that use 220V is more efficient because less energy is lost through heat with higher maximum energy availble. Anything above 60V can cause a shock so 110V is much safer compared to 220V.
Em 21: Advantages of electrical energy is that it is a clean, cheap, safe and convinient source of energy. It is used in medical treatment such as restarting a patient's heart. Home-produced electricity is very environmental friendly in exchange of less electricity produced. However Mass-electricity production often emits harm to the environment such as fossil fules and nuclear power plants sending CO2 out to the environment. Other disadvantages are that in terms of heating it is the most expensive and a possibility of injury because of shock. Most of the technology today requires electricity anyways so there is no other choice.
Summary of Science Class (Electricty)
We have been learning about all sorts of things in electricity including electrons and protons. We learned how the electric charges interact and apprently same charges repel each other and opposite charges attract each other.
There are three ways in which electric charges can be transferred; friction, conduction, and induction. Friction is when you rub for example you can rub a sock on a carpet and the charges will get disturbuted. Conduction is the direct contact between for example the contact between the sock and the leg will disturbute the electrons and protons throughout the body. Induction is when electrons move to one part of an object casued by an electric field from a second object. For example when someone touches the door knob it will create an electric field on the finger tip and it will shock.
What an electric current is and how it is produced? An electric current is the continuous flow of electric charges through a material. It is the amount of charges that pass a certain point in a period of time and the unit is amp (A). How an electric current requires an electric circuit to exist. There are electric circuits all around us including radios to televisions.
There are conductors and insulators. Conductors are materials that allow electricity to flow easily because of the loosely bound electrons; some examples are silver and copper. Insulators are materials that don't allow electricty to flow easily because of the tightly bound electrons; some examples are rubber and glass.
We learned the interaction between resistance, voltage and current as well as power, voltage and current. Resistance is the measure of how hard it is to pass the charges through the material.
Voltage is the potential difference in the electrical energy between two places. Current is the continuous flow of electric charges through a material.
The Ohm's law demonstrates the relationship and how they affect each other between the 3 concepts mentioned above. The equation Resistance = Voltage/Current can be used to find out what the resistance is.
This proves that the more resistance there is the less current. Power, the rate at which energy is transformed from one form to another could be found by Power = Voltage * Current which is really similar. An electric charge will often choose the path with the least resistance because it is simply easier. The 4 factors that determine resistance is the material. length, diameter, and the temperature.
We learned about two types of circuits; series circuit and parallel circuit. The series circuit only contains one path and the more resistor it contains the less current it will produce meaning a more dim light bulb because of the resistance increase. The parallel circuit contains several paths for the current to take and the more resistors added the resistance will decrease. This happens because the amount of current that can be produced will increase because it has more room to flow causing the current to increase and will make the light bulb brighter.
We built a motor from scratch without knowing where to start and by watching videos that enhance our knowledge to the creation of the motor. Furthermore we created an electromagnet which is a magnet that has an ability to be turned on or off with a nail, copper, wire and a battery. The motor works because there is a source of energy, a magnet and a wire at a certain length. Not only that but it requires a balance between the weight of the copper wire and the least amount of resistance possible. The electromagnet works because there's a source of energy again and a wire wrapping the magnet which must be a conductor like copper. The source of energy, in this case a battery provides a current to flow through the wire which causes a magnetic field to appear, eventually magnetizing the magnet.
When i got to see everyone's circuit they made, I was amazed by how they were working and I thought I could make one myself as well but couldn't make it work. I found it very interesting how all of this factors; battery, switch, resistor, and wire could lead to a working circuit. What i thought we could of done in class to enhance our knowledge more was to demonstrate the ways an electric charge can be transferred for example show friction by rubbing a balloon or something really simple. It was a pleasure to be able to make our own quizzes and test our knowledge by taking other people's quizzes. This made us realize what we have trouble on and what we already mastered. Before the classes about all this electricity matter, I never thought that about how the circuits are placed and thought they would all have the same results anyways. Although I learned that there are 2 types of circuits and the parallel circuit is much more efficient. Furthermore, I found out that the equations all relate too because if you know what the voltage and the current is you can figure out what the power is and even the resistance.
I would give myself a 7/10 in my effort because I only waited until the last minute to do everything including the electric motor and the quizzes. I think I could of done better if I took into consideration about my work habits and do things on time with good quality. Sometimes I've had difficulties during lessons where I would not know what's happening because people will shout out things and etc but overall it was a pretty good session for me.
What was the purpose of these first two days of school and what are my plans for this year?”
I am in Intergrated Science 3 Period G. The first two days of school in class, the activity helped me learn there are not only one way of solving a puzzle. Some people might be better than you in something but you can put in a lot of effort to improve yourself. There is always room to improve and if you keep practicing and learning from mistakes, you will eventually gain the skill. My plans for this year is to be a lot more focused and keep trying what I can´t do instead of repeating what I can do.
"Meals and Wheals Project Assessment."
This project started by my teacher as a manager of a meal company assigning the students to choose the best meal for each diet. We had 3 choices of meals and had to evaluate which one was the best for a long-term diet and a short-term diet. The first steps in the project, we made plans and tried to figure out what each person's going to work on so we get organized and work through this effectively. Our team worked pretty good the first few days but slacked off because we weren't really sure what we're gonna add in the presentation. Our leader Marina and I started working on the power point adding some reasoning of why we chose menu 1 as the short-term diet and menu 2 as the long-term diet. Not only that but we researched a bit about nutrients and added why menu 3 was not the best choice viable. The reason behind menu 1 being suited for a short-term diet is because it contains the least amount of fat products and includes dozens of fruits to eat. Furthermore it is low in carbohydrate and protein which a human must consume, thus choosing menu 1 for the short-term diet. Our team really favored menu 2 because of the balance. It didn't contain too much fat nor carbohydrates and still able to take all the nutrients that the customer will will need to be taking. You might wonder why didn't we choose menu 1 for the long-term diet and it's because menu 1 didn't have as much variety of choices in terms of food, so there is a high risk that the customer will get bored of what he or she is eating. Menu 3 is simply out of our list of choices because it is full of fat foods such as bacon, steak and other fried products. It is true that it contains less carbohydrates and it could lead to a weight loss but by consuming this much fatty foods, there is a possibility that the person consuming menu 3 will end up having a disease. I discovered that with made up plans and schedules, things can really flow smooth and help us finish this project without hesitation. It is also essential to think about what each person is going to say when presenting so it goes smoothly with no fuss. This project contributed to my science knowledge by telling me what kinds of food contain what kinds of nutrients and how those nutrients function in the body. Furthermore, I found out that it is better to take some nutrients than others. In terms of general organization skills, we weren't that good with it but we still went out and managed to finish. Although it ended up that Marina had to take home the power point and finish some stuff up, it was a good chunk of time we spent at school researching and putting some effort in the actual presentation.
“What kind of cell
like to be and why”
Out of all the millions of cells out there in the World today, I would like to be a plant cell. Unlike animal cells, plant cells can go through a process called photosynthesis and make their own food. It's amazing how unique it is to provide all your foods and wouldn't have to go eat food like animals. However animal cells and plant cells are similar in many ways they are different as well. For example plant cells have rigid cell walls and a vacuoles that contains some toxic waste, while animal cells only has a vacuole. A cool thing about plant cells is that it was the first cells discovered by the scientists and it is very significant to have plants for oxygen and food. They obtain energy from water and sun which is another unique part and the roots are the source that absorbs water. I wouldn't want to be a prokaryotic cell because a lot of the times it is much smaller than the eukaryotic cell. Prokaryotic cells also lack a nucleus and any other membrane-bound organelles.
Plant cell - http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/media/eukaryote_plant.gif
My cell speech (Ribosomes)
I composed a cell speech defending why I, the ribosome should stay on a boat out of all the other important organelles. "All of us might be a very important factor for the cell in this situation but I should live. Without my existence none of the other organelles and our body will function. I create the proteins necessary for our bodies, combining the elements that are needed. What proteins do is serve various functions in our body, such as defending the body from invaders, responsible for movement, facilitate biochemical reactions, serve as a messanger, provide support for tissues, store amino acids and more. I control the body and without me there is no possibility that the body could function so it is a wise choice to take me on the boat."
Ribosomes are minute particles consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. The ribosomes assemble proteins with amino acids which are essential to living things. Translation is the process that allows the ribosomes to combine the elements that are needed to create the proteins. Out of the two types of ribosomes the free ribosome is located in the cytosol and the bound ribosomes are in the endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes consists of a large subunit and a small subunit. These structures are necessary for the ribosomes to attach with the messanger RNA in order to form proteins. mRNA is a molecule of ribonuclei acid that contains a copy of the DNA template that includes the construction of proteins. The mRNA is resposible for carrying the information until the ribosomes attach and start the process. Proteins created in the free ribosome is often used in the cystol. The proteins from bound ribosomes are either exported out of the cell or stays to serve a specific role in the cell membrane. The condons in a mRNA allows the creation of amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. tRNA will look for the complementary amino acid that partnerd with the proteins in order to link those two and create a legit protein. Ribosomes are made of proteins and rRNA and they are the factory where the proteins necessary for life are assembled. Since our body is required to take protein for various reasons in our body such as functioning our cells, it could cause illness and other diseases to occur without taking enough or none.
Ribosome Structure and Function
In science class, we learned about how there are two different types of diffusion which is a facilitated diffusion and a normal diffusion. We also learned in depth about osmosis which is basically a diffusion with water through a membrane that has openings that liquid can flow through. We were assigned two eggs that were already soaked into vinegar for two whole days which allowed the shell to peel off but the cell membrane to stay. Every group containing three people were assigned two types of liquid to experiment with and my group, Pedro C, Victor, and I thought about which two we would want to experiment with and came up with a solution of alcohol and salt water. We thought this was a good choice because we wanted to see the difference between water with salt and water without salt, but did want to try something else as well.
Our hypothesis was that both the salt water and the alcohol would have increased in size because the liquid would be soaked into the egg. Specifically for salt water, we came up with an idea that the salt would remain in the cup while the liquid would get soaked into the egg because we thought that it isn't possible to pass the cell membrane. On the other hand we thought alcohol would increase dramatically because it is pure liquid and it will allow the egg to soak most of the alcohol while leaving less liquid in the cup.
The first day was when we all settled and talked about what each person's role was. We came up with the solution that I would record all the information, Victor will conduct all the measurements, and Pedro would do the actual experiment. There were times we changed roles but we mostly stuck to this set up. We recorded the observations of the two eggs without touching it after the shell dissolved and looked at the appearance, circumference, and the mass. After that we got two 80 mL beakers of alcohol and salt water which we poured into two separate cups. The cups were used to put one egg in the cup with alcohol and one in with the salt water.
The second day we just recorded what were the changes from the initial eggs and found out some interesting things that happened to it. Again, we measured the circumference, mass, observed the appearance, but this time we also measured the volume of the liquid left in the cup.
The third day was basically the same as day two but found dramatic changes to the egg and the amount of liquid in the cup. We found out that the egg with alcohol decreased in terms of mass and the circumference but the volume of the liquid actually decreased as well. This wasn't our prediction because we never thought an egg would become smaller and on top of that somehow the amount of liquid was decreased too. For salt water it was surprising to us too that the egg increased in size by a lot and it seemed to soak up the salt with the egg which allowed the mass to be gigantic. We think the mass change happened because of the salt and not the water because the egg with alcohol a form of liquid is actually decreased in size and it wouldn't make sense if the water had to do anything with the egg with salty water. After all these observations, it was time to cut the egg into half to see what was happening inside the egg. It turned out that the egg with alcohol was almost like a boiled egg and the one with salty water popped immediately as we poked it.
Egg with Salt Water
Egg with Alcohol
Characteristics of the eggs for Alcohol
Volume of solution (mL)
Characteristics of the eggs for Salt Water
Volume of solution (mL)
As a conclusion we found out that both our hypothesis was wrong in most parts but correct in a few ways. The egg with alcohol slightly decreased in mass (68.25 g to 61.06 g) and circumference (15.5 cm to 14 cm) while also decreasing in the volume of alcohol (80 mL to 50 mL). This proves our hypothesis to be somewhat correct because we said the volume of the water will decrease and the egg soaked the alcohol looking at the picture after we dissected it, making it look solid. We think it became solid because of the evaporation of the liquid inside the egg and the structure of the proteins in the egg. By denaturing the proteins with alcohol the proteins and the amino acids inside create strong bonds which were originally weak. We came up with an conclusion that the egg actually made a diffusion where the alcohol went into the egg because the outer part of the egg had a higher concentration and it went to a lower concentration which is inside the egg itself. It did this process until both concentrations were equal. We also believe that the alcohol in the cup actually evaporated because of the fact that we didn't close the lid of the cup and there was a space for air to flow.
For the egg with salt water, the hypothesis was correct because of the fact that it increased in mass (71.08 g to 83.07g) and circumference (15.8 cm to 17.5 cm) as well as volume (80mL to 63 mL). We believe this happened through the process of osmosis which is a movement of water through a high concentration to a low concentration. The outer part of the egg was the salt water and it moved to a lower concentration which is the egg itself to balance the amount of liquid. The egg soaked up a lot of the liquid and it increased in overall size. Looking at the popped egg it shows how much water it absorbed and made it even more fragile. We believe the water entered the egg and that caused the egg with salt water to contain more liquid because unlike the alcohol, the salty water does not denature the proteins inside the egg and does not work like it's boiling.
We observed the egg with alcohol to be yellowish orange on the first day but as we soaked it in the alcohol for 3 full days we noticed a dramatic change in color and it turned white. Not only that but it turned smaller in size as well. For the salt water, the egg did not change much in terms of color but the size dramatically increased and it definitely felt more soft than the first day. Osmosis can happen in a real life as well for example in a plant it will help it receive enough water to survive and grow.
The procedure that could have been better is that when we transferred the liquid into a beaker than to a cup then put the egg back in with the spoon and so on, it might of made a spill somewhere. We could change this by having a bigger cup and it will make it easier for us to actually scoop the egg with the spoon and do whatever we want with it. The material that i was concerned with was the string because the measurement could have gone wrong in so many ways. First of all the string can be stretched too far or too short and it will be different for each group and second of all the string might have not been placed in the middle of the egg which is very hard to do because of the oval shape. A huge error that we made is not covering the cup which pretty much determined the outcome of the experiment. If we had the cup covered, the results might have been significantly more accurate. Another error that we made is to not observe the detailed structure and the appearance of the egg so that we could have came up with a better solution to why the egg with salt water contains liquid and why the egg with alcohol became solid.
Me, Pedro, and Victor worked swiftly and cooperatively. I gathered all the materials every day and then Victor would conduct the experiment while Pedro helped. Although I think Pedro could have done something more because all he did was mostly watch Victor do the experiment. Perhaps it was because Victor didn't assign Pedro to do a specific job and he didn't know what to do. I recorded all the information for my own group and Arthur's group so we have two results. Overall I think it was a good team but we could've helped Pedro a little more so he has something to do such as clean the cups and put away the materials that we used.
At the end of the experiment, I learned that there are times when we expect something to happen but it actually doesn't. We made reasonable hypothesis's at the beginning but ended up with a completely different result. Although we now learned what happens if we soak the egg into a cup of alcohol and a cup of salt water. Comparing my group and Arthur's group's results we can see a difference and I think it was because of the egg size at the beginning or the accueracy in the measurements and all that type of thing. It shows us how hard it is to experiment something and get perfectly accurate results. In terms of osmosis I learnt how the solution tries to maintain an equal concentration so it adds or decreases the liquid it has. Diffusion is the same thing but it's not liquid and both can happen at the same time.
A project was assigned by my teacher in which I had to create a teaching kit that allows teachers to use as a tool for a company named Zoinks! I chose a newspaper type of thing because it seemed like it would be really cool to have lots of colors and pictures that allows people to understand some concepts better. Although it wasn't too hard i took more time than I thought because of the lack of ideas I had. I was planning to just gather up all the information and input it in the newspaper format I find in the internet, but I couldn't find a good one causing me to make my own thing. This made me change my plan a bit and I took more time trying to think of a format I could use for the paper than trying to find good images and content to fill in the paper. Basically it delayed my project but it overall turned out okay. I tried to keep the reader entertained and informed with rich information at the same time. Some concepts I covered in this project is about cells, nutrients, respiration, and photosynthesis. At the end, the project turned out to be a newspaper type of document consisting of four pages. Some things necessary for this to happen is the colors, images, and descriptive information with rich content.
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